Major Crops of Bangladesh
Bangladesh got the blessing of almighty, we can cultivate on about 70 percent of land across the country. Different crops are grown in Bangladesh. Crops in Bangladesh has two kinds, cash crops and food crops.
The crops which are grown to consume and to fulfill family demand are food crops. Generally, those have no surplus, if any surplus occurs we sell them to the local market or export to a foreign country. The main food crops of Bangladesh are potato, paddy, pulse, barley, oilseeds, fruit, vegetables, spices, maize etc.
The crops which are grown for profit are called cash crops. Being an agricultural country, Bangladeshi farmers cultivate lots of cash crops. In local and international markets those crop of BD has huge demand. The main cash crops of Bangladesh are tea, jute, tobacco, sugarcane, silk, rubber etc.
Food crops of Bangladesh
The farmers are cultivating lots of food crops in BD. Major Food crops of Bangladesh are described below:
Rice which comes from the paddy is the staple food of Bangladeshi people. Bangladeshi farmers harvest paddy almost 80 percent of arable land. The favorable weather of paddy cultivation is 16 C to 30 C temperature and 100 cm to 350 cm rainfall. The river collects fertile and muddy soil, those make paddies growing faster. Paddy grows almost all over Bangladesh but here I am mentioning the districts where paddy grows in greater quantity, they are Dinajpur, Rajshahi, Barishal, Patuakhali, Sylhet, Cumilla, Mymensing etc. In the 2018-19 fiscal year, Paddy grows on a total of 284.55 lakh acre of land and total production is 363.89 lakh metric ton on aus, amon, boro season. In that time BD import rice worth $124 million.
Wheat is the second largest edible food of Bangladeshi people. Flour is produced from wheat. Wheat requires plain lands with a water extraction system, mild temperature as 16 C to 22 C and an average rainfall of 40 cm to 100 cm. Dinajpur, Rangpur, Thakurgaon, Tangail, Jessore, Pabna, Rajshahi and Bogra are the most growing districts. Wheat is a major food of Bangladeshi but there is a shortage of wheat production in Bangladesh. In 2018-19 farmers harvest wheat on 8.16 lakh acre land and production is 10.16 lakh metric tons. At that time this country import wheat worth $1148 million.
Riversides which are sandy and 15 C – 20 C temperature are the best weather for pulse cultivation. Different items made from pulses are one of the main curries of Bangladeshi people. Farmers harvest pulse in winter, generally on the basin of Padma, Jamuna and other rivers or areas. Different kinds of the pulse are grows in Bangladesh, those are Moog, lentil, pea, khesari, arohar etc. by the fiscal year 2018-19, Gram harvest on 11891 acre of land and total production is 5347 metric tons, Arhar harvest on 1149 acre of land and total production is 468 metric tons, Masur harvest on 344610 acres of land and total production is 160716 metric tons, Motor harvest on 15963 acres land and total production is 7126 metric tons, Mung harvest on 102109 acres land and total production is 33951 metric tons, Mashkalai harvest on 113812 acres land and total production is 42273 metric tons, Khesari harvest on 257536 acres land and total production is 116718 metric tons, Fallon harvest on 16698 acres land and total production is 10999 metric tons, Garikalai harvest on 2472 acres land and total production is 848 metric tons etc. In 2018-19 Bangladesh import all sorts of pulses worth $411 million.
We collect vegetable oils from mustard, soya bean, olive, peanut, coconut, linseed, sunflower, cottonseed etc. Bangladeshi farmers harvest coconut, soya bean, mustard, peanut, linseed etc. We harvest oilseeds mainly in winter. Most of the oilseed growing districts are Dinajpur, Rajshahi, Dhaka and Mymensing. The oilseeds produced by our farmers is not enough to fulfill our demand. We import tons of oilseed from abroad. in 2018-19, edible oilseed, Til cultivated on 84526 acres of land and total yield is 31613 metric ton, Rape & Mustard cultivated on 667241 acres of land and total yield is 311740 metric ton, Groundnut cultivated on 87131 acres of land and total production is 62832 metric ton, Soyabean cultivated on 154396 acres of land and total yield is 110785 metric ton, Sunflower cultivated on 3187 acres of land and total yield is 1975 metric ton. Non-edible oilseed, Tishi cultivated on area of 13057 acres and total yield is 3641 metric ton. At that time import of this item increases to $653 million.
Maize is one of the fast-growing food crops in Bangladesh. Recently it is occupying the place of other crops. Its production is increasing every year. Top maize growing districts are Dinajpur, Rangpur, Mymensing, Rajshahi, Pabna and hill tracts of Chittagong division. Maize cultivated on 1,099,884 acres area and total yield is 3,569,321 metric tons.
In Bangladesh, mainly two types of potatoes are grown here, round potato and sweet potato.
Bangladeshi use round potatoes in different types of curry. In winter we harvest those. Top round potato harvesting districts of this country are Comilla, Dhaka, Rajshahi, Mymensing, Bogra, Dinajpur etc. Farmers produce round potato on 11.57 acres area and total yield is 95.55 lakh metric tons.
Many poor people of BD use sweet potato as an alternative to their main food rice. River basins are the best places to cultivate that type of potatoes. Top sweet potato harvesting districts are Comilla, Dhaka, Mymensing, Barishal, Jamalpur, Noakhali, Kishorganj etc. Farmers harvest sweet potato on 589669 acres area and total yield is 235881 metric tons.
Bangladeshi farmers grow fruits not only to meet their domestic demand but also to export them abroad. This country abounds in guava, plum, pineapple, litchi, watermelon, coconut, mango, jack fruit etc. Dinajpur and Rajshahi abound in litchi and mango. In 2019-20, tis nation export fruits worth $0.49 million.
Vegetables grow almost all the time in this country but winter is the best time for it. Tomato, cabbage, cucumber, pumpkin, gourd, brinjal and different types of potherb grow here. These are full of vitamins and minerals. This country exports its vegetables. In 2019-20, its export of vegetable has increased to $164 million.
You can’t imagine Bangladeshi curry without spices. Spices enhance the beauty, taste and flavor of foods. We cultivate coriander, garlic, ginger, onion, pepper etc. We import a great number of spices from abroad. The import of spices increases every year. By the year 2018-19, it turns to $315 million.
Barley is a grain similar to wheat. It is an easily digestible food item. Only a small amount of barley harvest here because the climate hinders to cultivate barley.
Cash crops of Bangladesh
Major cash crops of Bangladesh are jute, tea, tobacco, cotton, rubber, silk etc.
Bangladesh is one of the top jute producing countries in the world. The impact of jute in the economy of Bangladesh is great. This country is able to fulfill its domestic demand for jute and related products. This nation also earns foreign currency by exporting jute and jute products. The common jute products are bag, rope, hessian, sac and curtain cloths. 20 C- 26 C temperature and 200cm- 250 cm rainfall are the best weather for jute cultivation. Top jute growing districts are Faridpur, Bogra, Pabna, Rangpur, Dhaka, Mymensing, Comilla etc. Jute cultivated on 18.52 acres of land and total yield is 85.76 lakh bales by the year 2018-19. In the fiscal year 2019-20 this nation export jute and its product worth $882.35 million.
The top second cash crop of BD is tea. Tea cultivation requires sloppy soil where rain does not stand, 16 C- 27 C temperature and heavy rainfall. Plenty of tea grows in Sylhet and Chattogram districts. BD has about 158 tea gardens. In panchagar district, we have an organic tea garden. In 2018-19, tea is cultivated on 133443 acres of land and the total yield is 90685 metric tons. This country export tea worth $3.12 million in the fiscal year 2019-20.
Another cash crop of BD is tobacco which is the main raw material of cigarettes. Tobacco requires a warm, moist climate and moderate rainfall. Tobacco grows abounds in Rangpur, about 45 percent of tobacco grows here. In the year 2018-19, tobacco is cultivated on an area of 93,998 acres and the total yield is 82,399metric tons. In 2019-20, the export of tobacco increased to $80.36 million.
Cotton is the main raw material of a spinning meal. Bangladesh needs huge cotton every year. Only a small amount of cotton grows here and this country imports. Cotton grows in the district of Jessore, Kustia, Dinajpur, Rangpur, Pabna, Khulna, Dhaka, Tangail and Mymensingh. In 2018-19 BD imports raw cotton worth $2932 million. Bangladesh is facing an extreme shortage of this product.
Silk is a fiber produced from worms of the mulberry trees. We get very soft and costly cloths from silk. There are not plenty of mulberry trees in this country. In Rajshahi and chapai-nowabganj district, about 70 percent of the mulberry tree grows.
The cultivation of rubber requires sloppy soil, 20 C- 27 C temperature and an average annual rainfall 200cm. Both private and government grow rubber trees in Chattogram hill tracts, Khagrachari, Bandarban, Sylhet, Tangail and Mymensingh district.